Perubahan Jumlah dan Jenis Leukosit pada Pengguna Rokok Elektrik

Perdina Nursidika


An examination of leukocytes count and type of 30 e-cigarettes smokers has been done. E-cigarettes are a substitute for tobacco cigarettes which are categorized as safer because of fewer toxins. But the nicotine content in cigarettes can affect the immune system which is related to the leukocytes count and type. This study aims to describe the leukocytes count and types of in e-cigarette smokers who have used more than one month. Methods of examination using haematology analyser and peripheral blood smear. The results showed that the leukocytes count in 1 sample was low, 4 samples were high, and 25 other samples were normal. For leukocytes types, in 14 samples showed a type of cell abnormality by showing an increase in the number of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. It can be concluded that there are abnormalities in leukocyte counts and changes in leukocyte cell types in e-cigarette users.


e-cigarette, leukocytes count, leukocyte different types.

Full Text:



WHO. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2017. WHO; 2017.

Kristina SA, Endarti D, Prabandari YS, Ahsan A, Thavorncharoensap M. Burden of Cancers Related to Smoking among the Indonesian Population: Premature Mortality Costs and Years of Potential Life Lost. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev APJCP. 2015;16(16):6903–8.

Nursidika P, Romlah S, Maulina I. Kandungan Timbal Pada Urin Remaja Perokok. J Kesehat Kartika. 13 Maret 2018;11(1):17–17.

Subramanian J, Govindan R. Lung Cancer in Never Smokers: A Review. J Clin Oncol. 10 Februari 2007;25(5):561–70.

Khlifi R, Hamza-Chaffai A. Head and neck cancer due to heavy metal exposure via tobacco smoking and professional exposure: A review. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 15 Oktober 2010;248(2):71–88.

Nursidika P, Sugihartina G, Rismalasari R. Kadar Logam Timbal (Pb) dalam Lipstik yang Diperjualbelikan di Pasar Minggu Kota Cimahi. EduChemia J Kim Dan Pendidik. 30 Juli 2018;3(2):243–53.

Yanbaeva DG, Dentener MA, Creutzberg EC, Wesseling G, Wouters EFM. Systemic Effects of Smoking. Chest. 1 Mei 2007;131(5):1557–66.

Emery S, Gilpin EA, Ake C, Farkas AJ, Pierce JP. Characterizing and identifying “hard-core” smokers: implications for further reducing smoking prevalence. Am J Public Health. Maret 2000;90(3):387–94.

Lee J, Taneja V, Vassallo R. Cigarette Smoking and Inflammation. J Dent Res. Februari 2012;91(2):142–9.

Lancaster T, Stead L, Silagy C, Sowden A. Effectiveness of interventions to help people stop smoking: findings from the Cochrane Library. BMJ. 5 Agustus 2000;321(7257):355–8.

Stead LF, Perera R, Bullen C, Mant D, Hartmann‐Boyce J, Cahill K, dkk. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev [Internet]. 2012 [dikutip 16 November 2018];(11). Tersedia pada:

Abrams DB. Promise and Peril of e-Cigarettes: Can Disruptive Technology Make Cigarettes Obsolete? JAMA. 8 Januari 2014;311(2):135.

Mackay J, Eriksen M, Eriksen MP. The tobacco atlas. World Health Organization; 2002.

Zevin S, Saunders S, Gourlay SG, Jacob P, Benowitz NL. Cardiovascular effects of carbon monoxide and cigarette smoking. J Am Coll Cardiol. 15 November 2001;38(6):1633–8.

Lechasseur A, Jubinville É, Routhier J, Bérubé J, Hamel‐Auger M, Talbot M, dkk. Exposure to electronic cigarette vapors affects pulmonary and systemic expression of circadian molecular clock genes. Physiol Rep [Internet]. 16 Oktober 2017;5(19). Tersedia pada:

Britton J, Bogdanovica I. Electronic Cigarettes: A report commissioned by Public Health England. PHE Publication; 2014.

Farsalinos KE, Spyrou A, Tsimopoulou K, Stefopoulos C, Romagna G, Voudris V. Nicotine absorption from electronic cigarette use: comparison between first and new-generation devices. Sci Rep [Internet]. 26 Februari 2014;4. Tersedia pada:

Higuchi T, Omata F, Tsuchihashi K, Higashioka K, Koyamada R, Okada S. Current cigarette smoking is a reversible cause of elevated white blood cell count: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Prev Med Rep. 9 Agustus 2016;4:417–22.

Lao XQ, Jiang CQ, Zhang WS, Adab P, Lam TH, Cheng KK, dkk. Smoking, smoking cessation and inflammatory markers in older Chinese men: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Atherosclerosis. Maret 2009;203(1):304–10.

Schwartz J, Weiss ST. Cigarette smoking and peripheral blood leukocyte differentials. Ann Epidemiol. Mei 1994;4(3):236–42.

McCauley L, Markin C, Hosmer D. An unexpected consequence of electronic cigarette use. Chest. April 2012;141(4):1110–3.

Asgary S, Naderi G, Ghannady A. Effects of cigarette smoke, nicotine and cotinine on red blood cell hemolysis and their -SH capacity. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2005;10(2):116–9.

Kapoor D, Jones TH. Smoking and hormones in health and endocrine disorders. Eur J Endocrinol. April 2005;152(4):491–9.

Deutsch V, Lerner-Geva L, Reches A, Boyko V, Limor R, Grisaru D. Sustained leukocyte count during rising cortisol level. Acta Haematol. 2007;118(2):73–6.

Malenica M, Prnjavorac B, Bego T, Dujic T, Semiz S, Skrbo S, dkk. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Haematological Parameters in Healthy Population. Med Arch. April 2017;71(2):132–6.

Chmielewski PP, Strzelec B. Elevated leukocyte count as a harbinger of systemic inflammation, disease progression, and poor prognosis: a review. Folia Morphol. 6 Juni 2018;77(2):171–8.

Sato M, Sasaki N, Ato M, Hirakawa S, Sato K, Sato K. Microcirculation-on-a-Chip: A Microfluidic Platform for Assaying Blood- and Lymphatic-Vessel Permeability. PLoS ONE [Internet]. 2 September 2015;10(9). Tersedia pada:

Granger DN, Senchenkova E. Inflammation and the Microcirculation [Internet]. San Rafael (CA): Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences; 2010. (Integrated Systems Physiology—From Cell to Function). Tersedia pada:

Schane RE, Ling PM, Glantz SA. Health Effects of Light and Intermittent Smoking: A Review. Circulation. 6 April 2010;121(13):1518–22.

Aula FA, Qadir FA. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Some Immunological and Hematological Parameters in Male Smokers in Erbil City. Jordan J Biol Sci. 2013;6(2).

Lebowitz MD, Postma DS, Burrows B. Adverse Effects of Eosinophilia and Smoking on the Natural History of Newly Diagnosed Chronic Bronchitis. Chest. 1 Juli 1995;108(1):55–61.

Arnson Y, Shoenfeld Y, Amital H. Effects of tobacco smoke on immunity, inflammation and autoimmunity. J Autoimmun. Mei 2010;34(3):J258-265.

Nguyen H, Finkelstein E, Reznick A, Cross C, van der Vliet A. Cigarette smoke impairs neutrophil respiratory burst activation by aldehyde-induced thiol modifications. Toxicology. 7 Maret 2001;160(1):207–17.

Noda N, Matsumoto K, Fukuyama S, Asai Y, Kitajima H, Seki N, dkk. Cigarette smoke impairs phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by alveolar macrophages via inhibition of the histone deacetylase/Rac/CD9 pathways. Int Immunol. November 2013;25(11):643–50.

Christobher S, Periyasamy M, Syed Mohamed HE, Sadiq Bukhari A, Karthickkumar A, Balachandar V. Cytogenetical analysis in blood lymphocytes of cigarette smokers in Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India. Egypt J Med Hum Genet. 1 April 2017;18(2):147–52.

Nusa GB, Widyastiti NS. Perbedaan Neutrophil-lymphocyte Ratio Pada Subjek Bukan Perokok, Perokok Ringan Dan Perokok Sedang-berat. J Kedokt Diponegoro. 2016;5(4):903–910.

Lee J, Taneja V, Vassallo R. Cigarette smoking and inflammation: cellular and molecular mechanisms. J Dent Res. Februari 2012;91(2):142–9.

Mellon RD, Bayer BM. The effects of morphine, nicotine and epibatidine on lymphocyte activity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. Februari 1999;288(2):635–42.

Adams MR, Jessup W, Celermajer DS. Cigarette Smoking Is Associated With Increased Human Monocyte Adhesion to Endothelial Cells: Reversibility With Oral l-Arginine but Not Vitamin C. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1 Maret 1997;29(3):491–7.

Nielsen H. A quantitative and qualitative study of blood monocytes in smokers. Eur J Respir Dis. Mei 1985;66(5):327–32.

Piao W-H, Campagnolo D, Dayao C, Lukas RJ, Wu J, Shi F-D. Nicotine and inflammatory neurological disorders. Acta Pharmacol Sin. Juni 2009;30(6):715–22.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Meditory : The Journal of Medical Laboratory

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.